Test on Thursday…

HERE is what I need to be prepared for...there are only 50 questions on the test, but I don't know what they'll be...


  • muscular
  • circulatory
  • nervous
  • respiritory

Study guide is also the SPO (take a peek below the fold...)The Muscular System
Lab Exercise
Student Performance Objectives
The material that you are required to learn in this exercise can be found in either the lecture text, the laboratory manual or the supplemental materials provided in lab. Prior to coming to class, it is the student's responsibility to review the lab objectives and to be familiar with the material to be studied in lab. To accomplish this goal, the student's assigned task is to use a highlighter to mark all of the required lab content as identified in this set of Student Performance Objectives. This highlighting should be done prior to coming to lab.

Each of the student performance objectives that follows, should be prefaced by the phrase, "Upon completion of this lab, students will be able to:"

1. Using specimens, models, and/or diagrams, describe and identify the following components of skeletal muscle:
Muscle belly

Describe the relationship of all of these connective tissue layers.


2. Define the following terms and use them appropriately as they apply to the parts of muscles and the roles that muscles play during a defined body movement:

Prime mover

When flexing the forearm, which muscle is playing the role of the prime mover, ____________________________?
Which is playing the role of the antagonist? ________________________________
When extending the forearm, which muscle becomes the prime mover? _______________________________________


3. Describe the following muscle actions.

Plantar flexion

Example: Demonstrate three instances of flexion.


4. Identify the following reasons for naming muscles and site at least one example for each.

Size of muscle
Direction of muscle fiber
Number of heads
Location of origin and/or insertion

Example: A muscle whose name includes extensor or abductor is named for its ________________________________


5. Using microscope slides, models, and/or illustrations, identify and describe the histology of
the following types of muscle tissue and their components.

Intercalated disc

Example: Describe an intercalated disc with relationship to the surrounding striations. In which
muscle type would one find them?


6. Using models and/or diagrams, describe and identify the following muscles.
For each muscle listed below, know the muscle’s ORIGIN (O), INSERTION (I), and/or ACTION (A) that has an “ * ” before it. Some muscles have several actions listed. For the lab exam, only one is required. For example, the biceps brachii muscle has two (2) actions, namely, "flexion of the forearm" and "supination of the forearm". On the test, you need only name one of these two.
Muscles of Facial Expression:

1. Frontalis [O] - Cranial aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica)
[ I ] - Skin of eyebrows; root of nose
*[A] - Raises eyebrows, draws scalp anteriorly

2. Orbicularis oculi [O] - Maxillary and frontal bones
[ I ] - Skin of eyelid
*[A] - Closes eyelids as in blinking, squinting

3. Orbicularis oris [O] – Fascia of facial muscles near mouth
[ I ] - Encircles mouth
*[A] - Closes mouth, protrudes and purses lips (“kissing muscle”)

Muscles of Mastication:

1. Masseter [O] - Zygomatic arch
[ I ] - Angle and ramus of mandible
*[A] - Elevates mandible

2. Temporalis [O] - Temporal fossa
[ I ] - Coronoid process and ramus of mandible
*[A] - Elevates mandible

Muscles that move the Head:

1. Sternocleidomastoid [O] - Manubrium of sternum and medial portion of clavicle
[ I ] - Mastoid process of temporal bone
*[A] - Bilaterally: flexes neck; Unilateral action: rotates head to shoulder on opposite side, lateral flexion
Muscles that move the Pectoral Girdle (Scapula and Clavicle):

1. Trapezius [O] - Occipital bone and spines of C7 and all thoracic vertebrae
[ I ] - Clavicle, spinous process and acromion process of scapula,
*[A] - Extends head; retracts scapula, fixes scapula, elevates and depresses scapula
Muscles that move the Arm:

1. Pectoralis major [O] - Clavicle, sternum, costal cartilages of ribs 1-7
[ I ] - Greater tubercle of humerus
*[A] - Flexion, adduction, and medial rotation of arm; with arm fixed, pulls chest forward (as in forced inspiration)

2. Latissimus Dorsi [O] - Lumbar vertebrae (T-7-T12, L1-L5), lower 3 to 4 ribs, and iliac crest
[ I ] - Intertuburcular groove of humerus
*[A] - Extends, adducts, and medially rotates arm; adduction; depresses scapula

3. Deltoid [O] - Acromion process, spine of scapula, and lateral third of clavicle
[ I ] - Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
*[A] - Flexes, extends, abducts, medially and laterally rotates arm

Muscles that move the Forearm:

1. Biceps Brachii [O] - Short head: coracoid process; tendon of long head runs in intertubercular groove and within capsule of shoulder joint
[ I ] - Radial tuberosity of radius
*[A] - Flexes forearm, supinates forearm

2. Triceps Brachii [O] - Long head: inferior margin of glenoid cavity; lateral head: posterior humerus; medial head: distal radial groove on posterior humerus
[ I ] - Olecranon process of ulna
*[A] - Extends forearm
Muscles that move the Hand and/or Digits:

1. Flexor carpi radialis [O] – Medial epicondyle of humerus
[ I ] - Second and third metacarpals
*[A] - Flexes wrist, abducts hand

2. Extensor Digitorum [O] - Lateral epicondyle of humerus
[ I ] - Distal phalanges of 2-5 fingers
*[A] - Extends fingers, extends wrist, flare (adduct) fingers
Muscles of the Abdominal Wall:

1. External Oblique [O] - Anterior base of ribs 5-12
[ I ] - Iliac crest, linea alba, pubis
*[A] - Flexes vertebral column (increases intra-abdominal pressure); fixes and depresses ribs, rotates trunk, compresses anterior abdominal wall

2. Rectus Abdominis [O] - Pubic crest and symphysis
[ I ] - Xiphoid process of sternum and costal cartilages of fifth through seventh ribs
*[A] - Flexes vertebral column; increases abdominal pressure, fixes and depresses ribs
Muscles that move the Thigh and /or the Leg:

1. Adductor Longus [O] - Pubic bone near pubic symphysis
[ I ] - Linea aspera of femur
*[A] - Adducts, flexes, and laterally rotates thigh

2. Gracilis [O] - Inferior ramus and body of pubis
[ I ] - Medial surface of head of tibia
*[A] - Adducts thigh and flexes

3. Gluteus Medius [O] - Upper, lateral surface of ilium
[ I ] - Greater trochanter of femur
*[A] - Abducts and medially rotates thigh

4. Gluteus Maximus [O] - Dorsal ileum, sacrum, and coccyx
[ I ] - Gluteal tuberosity of femur and iliotibial tract
*[A] - Powerful extensor of thigh; lateral rotation of thigh
Muscles that move the Leg:

1. Biceps Femoris [O] - Ischial tuberosity and linea aspera of femur
[ I ] - Head of fibula and lateral condyle of tibia
*[A] - Extends thigh, flexes leg

2. Sartorius [O] - Anterior superior iliac spine
[ I ] - Medial surface of proximal tibia
*[A] - Flexes and laterally rotates thigh, flexes leg

3. Quadriceps (Femoris): consists of four (4) different muscles

a. Rectus Femoris [O] - Anterior inferior iliac spine and superior margin of acetabulum
[ I ] - Tibial tuberosity
*[A] - Extends leg and flexes thigh

b. Vastus Lateralis [O] - Greater trochanter and linea aspera
[ I ] - Tibial tuberosity
*[A] - Extends leg

c. Vastus Medialis [O] - Linea aspera of femur
[ I ] - Tibial tuberosity
*[A] - Extends leg

Muscles that move the Foot and/or Digits:

1. Tibialis Anterior [O] - Lateral condyle and lateral surface of tibia
[ I ] - First cuneiform and first metatarsal
*[A] – Dorsiflexion of the foot; inverts foot

2. Gastrocnemius [O] - Lateral and medial condyles of femur
[ I ] - Calcareous via calcaneal tendon
*[A] - Flexes leg; plantar flexion of the foot
Identify These Connective Tissues

1. Flexor retinaculum - Located on the palmar surface of the carpal bones, loops around
the wrist like a bracelet

2. Extensor retinaculum - Located on the dorsal surface of the carpal bones, the extensor
tendons of the wrist and digits pass through it.

3. Patellar ligament - Continuation of quadriceps muscle tendon, extends from the
patella to the tibial tuberosity

4. Calcaneal (Achille's) tendon - Anchors gastrocnemius and soleus to calcaneal (heel) bone

Nerve Tissue and the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
Lab Exercise
Student Performance Objectives
Each of the student performance objectives that follows, should be prefaced by the phrase, "Upon completion of this lab, students will be able to:"

1. Describe the following structures, their functions, and their relationship to the nervous system.

central nervous system (CNS)
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
neuroglia or glial cells
Example: Which are the nerve impulse conducting cells? ______________________________
2. Using a prepared microscope slide of a giant multipolar neuron, a slide of a nerve in
longitudinal section, a slide of astrocytes, models, charts, and text illustrations, identify the structures of the following parts of the neuron and related structures and astrocytes. An (#) indicates those structures that can be seen on a microscope slide in addition to a model.

cell body #
nucleus #
process #
collateral branch
axonal terminals (terminal ends)
synaptic cleft (gap)
Schwann cell #
myelinated fiber (myelin) #
Node of Ranvier #
astrocyte (neuroglia cell) #
Which structures of the giant multipolar neuron are seen in the slide? ________________________________________________________

Which structures are seen in the longitudinal section of a nerve? ________________________________________________________
3. Identify and describe neurons with respect to their structure. Use the following terms:
unipolar neuron
bipolar neuron
multipolar neuron
sensory or afferent neuron
motor or efferent neuron
association neuron or interneuron
Illustrate the spatial relationship of these different types of neurons to each other.
4. Distinguish between mixed nerves, sensory (afferent) nerves, and motor (efferent) nerves.
5. Using illustrations and sheep brains, identify the following structures and their functions. These structures indicated with an (#) can be found on the sheep brain.

dura mater
subdural space
arachnoid mater
subarachnoid space
pia mater #
What is the major function of the meninges? _____________________________________________________________________________
6.. Using illustrations and sheep brains, identify the following structures and their functions. Note that not all structures will be seen on the sheep brains. Those structures indicated by an (#) should be identified on the sheep brain.

cerebral hemispheres #
gyri(us) #
sulci(us) #
longitudinal fissure #
frontal lobe #
parietal lobe #
occipital lobe #
temporal lobe #
cerebral cortex #
cerebral white matter #
olfactory bulbs/tracts #
optic nerves/chiasma/tract #
pituitary gland
corpus callosum #
brain stem #
midbrain #
pons #
medulla #
cerebellum #
diencephalon #
thalamus #
hypothalamus #

7. Using illustrations and sheep brains, identify the following structures/components and
their functions. Those structures indicated by an (#) should be identified on the sheep brain.

cerebrospinal fluid
lateral ventricles #
third ventricle #
septum pellucidum
cerebral aqueduct
central canal of the spinal cord
fourth ventricle #
Describe the flow of cerebrospinal fluid through the ventricles, etc. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. Using illustrations and models, identify the following structures and their functions.
spinal cord
cauda equina
gray matter
central canal
dorsal root
dorsal root ganglion
ventral root
spinal nerves
white matter
phrenic nerve
radial nerve
ulnar nerve
femoral nerve
sciatic nerve
How far down within the vertebral column does the spinal cord actually go? __________________________________________________________________________

What continues on through the rest of the length of the vertebral column? __________________________________________________________________________
The Circulatory System

Each of the student performance objectives that follows, should be prefaced by the phrase, "Upon completion of this lab, students will be able to:"

1. Describe the general characteristics of blood including its color, amount in the average person,
and composition. Use the following terms.
plasma (matrix)
formed elements
erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBCs)
leukocytes (white blood cells, WBCs)
2. Using the lab manual, textbook, prepared microscope slides, models, and illustrations, identify the formed elements of the blood and describe the distinguishing characteristics of each type.
(# illustration only) Use the following terms.
erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC)
leukocytes (white blood cells, WBCs)
platelets #
Example: What is the primary role of erythrocytes? __________________________________
3. Using a prepared demo microscope slide and illustrations, identify Sickle Cell Anemia.
Draw some typical erythrocytes and a few that are affected with the sickle cell disease.

4. Using the lab manual, describe the term hematocrit, identify what it represents, and how it is obtained. Students will not be performing this activity as outlined in the lab manual.
Anatomy of the Heart and Blood Vessels

1. Using models and illustrations, describe the location, general shape of the heart and its structures listed below. On a separate piece of paper describe the flow of blood through the heart. You may want to make a drawing along with this description.
epicardium (visceral pericardium)
right atrium
left atrium
right ventricle
left ventricle
interventricular septum
ductus arteriosus
ligamentum arteriosum
tricuspid or rt. atrioventricular valve
pulmonary semilunar valve
mitral or bicuspid or lt.
atrioventricular valve
aortic semilunar valve
chordae tendineae
papillary muscle
Identify three sources of deoxygenated blood coming into the right atrium. _____________________________________________________________________________
2. Using illustrations, trace the path of blood as it flows through the body. Use the following terms.

systemic circuit
pulmonary circuit
coronary circuit
Blood Vessels

1. Using prepared microscope slides and illustrations, identify the following layers that make up the walls of arteries, veins and capillaries along with their functions.

tunica intima
tunica media
tunica externa
Draw and label an artery and a vein. How do they differ? ____________________________
2. Using models and illustrations, identify the following arteries. (All the following arteries carry oxygenated blood except the pulmonary trunk and arteries.)

pulmonary trunk
pulmonary arteries
right and left coronary
right common carotid
right subclavian artery
left common carotid
left subclavian
internal carotid
external carotid
celiac trunk
superior mesenteric
inferior mesenteric
common iliac
external iliac
internal iliac
anterior tibial
posterior tibial

3. Using models and illustrations, identify the following veins. (All veins carry deoxygenated blood except the pulmonary veins.)
coronary veins and sinuus
superior vena cava
right brachiocephalic
left brachiocephalic
internal jugular
external jugular
median cubital
inferior vena cava
common iliac
external iliac
internal iliac
anterior tibial
posterior tibial
great saphenous
Anatomy of the Respiratory System

Each of the student performance objectives that follows, should be prefaced by the phrase, "Upon completion of this lab, students will be able to:"
1. Define the following terms

pulmonary ventilation _______________________________________________________
external respiration __________________________________________________________
transport of respiratory gases __________________________________________________
internal respiration __________________________________________________________
2. Using the models and illustrations, identify the following structures and their functions.

external nares (nostrils)
nasal cavity
nasal conchae
nasal septum
paranasal sinuses
hard palate
soft palate
pharyngeal tonsils
auditory (eustachian) tubes
palatine tonsils
lingual tonsil
thyroid cartilage
vocal folds
bronchial tree
primary bronchi
secondary bronchi
lobes of the lungs
fissures of the lungs
parietal pleura
visceral pleura
pleural cavity (space)
phrenic nerve
intercostal muscles
intercostal nerve
3. Using a prepared microscope slide of the trachea, identify the following structures and their functions.

tracheal rings
(hyaline cartilage)
ciliated pseudostratified columnar
goblet cells

What is the function of the tracheal ring? _________________________________________

What is the function of the ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium? __________________________________________________________________________
4. Using a prepared microscope slide of normal lung tissue, identify the following structures and their functions.

simple squamous epithelium

At which membrane does the gaseous exchange occur? ________________________________
5. Using prepared microscope slides, identify the following conditions:

coal dust (on same slide as normal lung, normal)

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4 thoughts on “Test on Thursday…

  1. Ah...if he marks me down for spelling mistakes, I'll remind him that on the last test he subracted 29 from 100 and scored me a 79...and even the 29 wrong was -wrong...I ended up with an 84 (which is still low, but at least a "B"


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